​Comprehensive Guide On Bullying – Types, Causes, Prevention & Action In Small Details

Bullying is an aggressive behavior towards one or more individuals that implies using perceived or real power imbalance. The behavior is unwanted and likely to have both long and short term consequences over the victim. If overlooked, it has the tendency to become repetitive.   The power imbalance can embrace multiple forms. Sometimes, the one bullying might have more physical power than the victim. Other times, the imbalance is psychical and may involve the access to embarrassing details about the victim or even pure popularity.   Each situation of  bullying  is unique and involves a series of factors, as well as more parts.

Types of Bullying

Individual

Individual bullying comes from one person only, but may affect one or more individuals. It involves all the issues associated with bullying, from physical to psychical types. Also, the power imbalance can be quite diversified. When it comes from one individual and it affects a group, it is usually physical power.

Collective

Collective bullying  comes from two or more individuals. While there is a fine line between collective bullying and mobbing, there are more differences between these two activities. Bullying can embrace nonphysical forms, while mobbing is almost always physical.

Characteristics

Bullies and Accomplices

Bullies  and their accomplices tend to be quite impulsive. Talking to them is difficult because they seem to have anger management issues. They can get frustrated and angry within seconds, so they snap out of nowhere. They have no empathy and tend to ignore runes. Moreover, blaming the victim is a common technique.

Typical Bystanders

Typical bystanders can help or be ignorant for a series of reasons. There are a few factors defining their actions. They are less likely to step in if they think the bullies are more powerful and can turn their actions against them. Other bystanders are simply too ignorant – such as kids or teenagers in school.

Victims

Bullying is an aggressive behavior
towards one or more individuals that implies using perceived or real power imbalance. The behavior is unwanted and likely to have both long and short term consequences over the victim. If overlooked, it has the tendency to become repetitive.
The power imbalance can embrace multiple forms. Sometimes, the one bullying might have more physical power than the victim. Other times, the imbalance is psychical and may involve the access to embarrassing details about the victim or even pure popularity.

Each situation of bullying is unique and involves a series of factors, as well as more parts.

Types of Bullying

Individual

Individual bullying comes from one person only, but may affect one or more individuals. It involves all the issues associated with bullying, from physical to psychical types. Also, the power imbalance can be quite diversified. When it comes from one individual and it affects a group, it is usually physical power.

Collective

Collective bullying comes from two or more individuals. While there is a fine line between collective bullying and mobbing, there are more differences between these two activities. Bullying can embrace nonphysical forms, while mobbing is almost always physical.

Characteristics

Bullies and Accomplices

Bullies and their accomplices tend to be quite impulsive. Talking to them is difficult because they seem to have anger management issues. They can get frustrated and angry within seconds, so they snap out of nowhere. They have no empathy and tend to ignore runes. Moreover, blaming the victim is a common technique.

Typical Bystanders

Typical bystanders can help or be
ignorant for a series of reasons. There are a few factors defining their actions.They are less likely to step in if they think the bullies are more powerful and can turn their actions against them. Other bystanders are simply too ignorant – such as kids or teenagers in school.

Victims

Victims of bullying often have nothing to do with it. They are picked on for random reasons – their looks, hairstyle, race, sexual orientation and so on. There are also situations when they are picked on for no actual reasons at all, but just because they seem weak.

Consequences

Suicide

Victims of bullying often feel helpless. They fail to ask for help for multiple reasons, be it embarrassment or fear. If the bullying persists, their motivation and will of living simply disappear. For this reason, suicide is among the most common longterm effects of repetitive bullying.

Positive Development

A positive development is the happy consequence of bullying, yet its incidence is extremely low. While most people are put down by bullying, there is a small category of people who get motivated to overcome this situation and end up successful in their venture.

Short Term Effects

Social isolation and low self confidence are the main short term effects of bullying for the victim. Feelings of shape, school avoidance, anxiety and poor school performance are also likely to occur, not to mention more severe issues like depression.

Long Term Effects

When it comes to the long term effects of bullying, victims tend to develop depression, anxiety disorders and a self destructive behavior, which will inevitably lead to self harm. If bullying is repetitive, the victim might develop suicidal thoughts. In fact,this is the ultimate long term effect for someone going through such experiences.

Dark Triad

History

The so called dark triad in psychology covers three traits of personality – psychopathy, Machiavellianism and narcissism. The three traits were originally put together by three scientists in 1998. They claimed they could be interchangeable in certain actions. While proven to be completely different, they do have many things in common as well.

Origins

Multiple studies have been performed to understand the effects of nature (biology) and nurture (environmental factors) over the dark triad traits. The most conclusive studies have been performed on twins, as they share similar environments and biological factors.

It seems that monozygotic twins are more likely to develop the same traits. On the other hand, dizygotic twins only share 50% of their genes, so there might be differences between them.

Components

Psychopathy is the worst element in the triad and involves extreme impulsivity, as well as almost no empathy. On the other hand, Machiavellianism is obvious in cynical people, not to mention the ones who believe in interpersonal manipulation. Last, but not least, narcissism is about superiority, entitlement and grandiosity. When put together, they create an individual who is quite hard to deal with.

While theoretically they are different, some characteristics might overlap. The three traits are tightly connected one to another. Therefore, someone suffering from one might easily develop the other two as well.

Group Differences

The most obvious group difference is in the gender – it seems men are more likely to develop dark triad traits than women. However, the gender gap seems to shrink with every new test. Multiple studies have been performed on races as well, yet differences are not conclusive yet. Most results so far indicated the fact that Caucasians are more exposed to the dark triad than non-Caucasians. Many studies are still ongoing though, as the results keep differing.

On a negative note, in terms of narcissism, it seems more and more people end up suffering from it. Today’s graduates are more likely to develop narcissism than the graduates from the 1970s or 1980s, when entitlement was not such a common thing.

Perspectives

According to chartered psychologist Oliver James, the dark triad is quite common in the workplace. As people get promotions and titles, they gain these traits more easily. The Internet effects have been intensively studied too. It seems that those so called Internet trolls may easily suffer from Machiavellianism and psychopathy, but they are also associated with antisocial behaviors and sadism.

People with dark triad influences tend to have more sex partners, focus on short term relationships and experience substance abuse at some point or another. In terms of appearance, they are often seen to be more attractive than others – especially those suffering from narcissism and psychopathy.

Projection

Historical Precursors

Bullying has always been around, only it has been given so much attention. As a general rule, low level rudeness is a general precursor for bullying. Rudeness may occur in school, workplaces or even communities. It is associated with a negative behavior that may also involve the lack of consideration for surrounding people and disrespect.

Such behaviors are not too extreme, so they are not taken for bullying. However, they create a perfect environment for bullying to occur. Furthermore, they can be caused by more factors, including an autocratic management style or middle management – mangers caught between negative cultures and stressed staff.

Psychoanalytic Developments

There are a series of factors that can develop the dark triad in bullies and trigger further actions. Most commonly, bullies learn such behaviors in the attempt to deal with stress in their lives. This is the reason wherefore so abused children end up as abusive adults.

The stress may come from more directions – low academic performances, no support, anxiety, strained parental issues and others. A bully will always display a self confident appearance, yet it is usually fake. It is part of a group of actions that are caused by insecurity.

Theoretical Examples

Theoretically, bullying may occur out of nowhere. Developing just one of the dark triad traits will inevitably lead to another. One thing leads to another and the individual will do whatever it takes to reach their objectives – including bullying.

While most bullies have some history and some obvious reasons behind their behaviors, some others cannot be linked to such things. Some cases involve bullies coming from a good family and growing in healthy environments. Some others relate to bullies with good education and healthy environments – even bullies who have their own happy families.

Practical Examples

Practical examples in the projection of bullying are quite obvious and can be understood without too much research. For example, you might be able to find bullies who have been abused as children. They have spent their childhood seeing abuse – aimed towards them or other family members. They believe it is normal, so this is how they behave.

Some others find aggressive bullying methods to be their self defense mechanisms. No matter what they are afraid of or insecure about, they will act aggressively towards others to hide their weaknesses and display a powerful appearance – be it in school, work or a local community.

Emotional Intelligence

Often referred to as EI, emotional intelligence is a scientific field related to the understanding of emotion in bullying, as well as using it to prevent and handle bullying. The concept can go in two different directions.

It mixes intellectual and emotional aspects in the attempt to grow its incidence. It is often related to bullying, whether it comes to the bully or the victim. It plays a significant role in understanding the behavior and what causes it, but also in handling it before even bullying occurs.

When used in education, EI can greatly prevent such situations.

Types of Bullying

Cyberbullying

Definition

Cyberbullying is currently one of the most common forms of bullying – a modern type that occurred with the growing popularity of the Internet. It occurs in digital environments and can take multiple forms. While it does not get physical, it can be powerful for the victim. Whether it targets the victim’s looks, sexual orientation, performance or opinions, it can seriously affect their self confidence and esteem.

While it may appear less harmful due to the lack of physical involvement, cyberbullying can also lead to depression, poor performance and even suicide.

Cyberbullying and Sex

Cyberbullying is strongly related to sexual harassment and other sex related activities. There are not too many protective barriers, even when it comes to young users. They can go online anytime, anywhere and without any adult supervision. Cyberbullying with sexual tendencies can occur over the Internet only, but it may also evolve into real life interactions.

Victims can get bullied for their sexual orientation or blackmailed. They may have to watch sexual acts in pictures or over webcams or even be forced to perform themselves. If not handled quickly, cyberbullying and sex can turn to real life interaction and become even more harmful.

Identifying Cyberbullying

The signs of cyberbullying are quite obvious. The victim will show emotional withdrawal, a sudden disinterest in activities and the reluctance to go to school. Moreover, they might be upset or surprisingly quiet when using the smartphone, which they tend to be very protective and secretive about.

There will be more or less visible signs of change in sleep, appetite and behavior. Also, most victims tend to avoid discussions about bullying. While most people enjoy using their phones,victims of cyberbullying will look distressed, nervous and anxious whenever they get a new notification.

Disability Bullying

Disability bullying affects people
with disabilities. It can be psychological, sexual, financial and even
physical. Some disabilities may not be visible (such as asthma or learning disabilities). Therefore, the bully may not understand the necessity of
constant support.

Unfortunately, disability bullying exposes someone who already is a victim. People with disabilities already require additional support, so they are more vulnerable to neglect than others. When bullying steps in too, their lives turn into a nightmare.

Disability abuse is often considered a hate crime in many countries and bullying is also associated with it.

Gay Bullying

Homophobic bullying is not strictly related to gay bullying only, as it also affects bisexuals, transgenders and even heterosexuals perceived by the bully to be gay. Victims have to face constant harassment, threats and even physical violence on a regular basis. Gay youths are 50% more likely to face such abuse than straight youths.

Their mental health can be severely affected and bullying may lead to substance abuse, unhappiness, self harm and suicide. According to statistics, gay youths are four times more likely to attempt suicide than straight youths, mostly because of the bullying they take – sometimes, even from their own families.

Legal Bullying

Legal bullying may not seem as harmful as other forms of bullying, but it often puts the victim in a helpless situation. If someone gets abuse from a legal representative or someone related to the legal system, how can they expect the same system to help them against bullying?

All in all, legal bullying relates to criminal and civil legal actions. Literally any aspect of this system can be the source of bullying – law enforcement bullying, corruption, misconduct, frivolous threatenings and so on.

Injustice is not the only issue, as legal bullying may also target psychological and physical health standards.

Military Bullying

Military bullying involves the use of physical force or authority to abuse and intimidates people in the military. Unlawful and incorrect punishments are also referred to as part of bullying. The bad news is that military bullying is less likely to be a onetime abuse, but a repetitive one. For this reason, many soldiers and retirees experience mental issues, depression and even attempt suicide.

While military bullying might be accepted in some cultures for character strengthening, it is blamed in civilized countries, which have plenty of other training solutions to strengthen soldiers.

Parental Bullying of Children

While most parents want the best
for their kids, there are plenty of them who overlook the health and safety of their little ones. Emotional bullying can damage a child in the long run and it implies using both passive-aggressive and aggressive behavior. Overtime, such behavior will cause fear and humiliation.

Some parents are aware of their actions, yet they lack the emotional intelligence to raise their children without bullying them. The worst part is that kids are small and weak, so they make simple targets for irresponsible parents. Unfortunately, many children are helpless in such situations.

Prison Bullying

Prison bullying may occur from a series of different cause. Prisoners are bullied by more powerful convicts or their gangs for not paying protection taxes, sharing their goods or even joining their gangs. In high security prisons, bullying is a common thing that often leads to fights and murders.

Racial bullying is just as common in prisons, as people tend to get together in gangs based on race. Another common cause is religion. All in all, given the environment, prison bullying can be extremely aggressive and dangerous at the same time.

School Bullying

School bullying is one of the first types of bullying people experience in their lives. It occurs at an early age and even in the first grades in school. While such young bullies may not necessarily be aware of their actions and the consequences, teenage bullying is more diversified and can become quite dangerous.

During their teenage years, children can experience depression, low self confidence and even attempt suicide if bullying is repetitive. It is imperative for both the victim and those around them to identify signs of bullying before it becomes a repetitive action that leads to severe consequences.

Sexual Bullying

Sexual bullying is related to the victim’s sexual aspects, such as sex, orientation, activities and even body appearance. People are often bullied for being gay. When it comes to younger bullies, they will mostly attack someone based on their appearance.

Bullying and attacks can be physical, yet this is not a general rule. In fact, many of them are verbal and emotional. The victim will face public embarrassment and must take action before the abuse becomes repetitive.

Such actions occur in schools, workplaces, communities and even over the Internet, where free speech is given a new meaning.

Trans Bullying

Trans bullying is often associated with gay or homophobic bullying, yet there are some clear differences between them. When it comes to trans bullying, the sexual orientation is irrelevant.The victim is bullied based on negative beliefs or views towards trans people.

This form of bullying will mostly affect trans people. However, those who question their sex may also be attacked. Attacks are not always physical. Most of them are verbal and repetitive. Other awkward behaviors are also included in this range of abusive actions.

Victims suffer emotional trauma and end up with depression and social isolation.

Workplace Bullying

Workplace bullying is extremely common and may occur from a wide plethora of causes and reasons. It does not always occur face to face, but it may also occur by email, phone, letter. Other negative actions are considered part of workplace bullying too.

For example, an unfair treatment from the manager is a fairly good reason. Spreading malicious rumors is just as common, not to mention denying someone’s promotion opportunities. As a result, the victim’s motivation for the job or company is quickly gone. If the issue is not handled quickly, the victim is likely to leave the company.

In Other Areas

Bullying can occur virtually anywhere. There are specific types of bullying in pretty much any kind of environment out there – schools, workplaces, institutions, businesses, prisons and so on. Bullying can occur in a park, a neighborhood or a community. There are infinite reasons wherefore people can get bullied – having pets, walking, the way they run, the way they exercise, their clothes, hairstyle, makeup and overall styles, such as emo, punk and others.

In some well known cases, bullying went so far that it became murder or manslaughter. If identified early, victims have a good chance of recovery.

Inanimate Objects

Bullying against inanimate objects is an often overlooked type of bullying. Most people ignore it, yet its consequences will soon go in the wrong direction. Inanimate objects represent the first step in the process. From this point of view, those who bully objects are more likely to end up abusing animals and even bullying other people.

Children have been seen bullying robots means to assist elders by blocking their paths or even hitting and destroying them. While they see robots as human-like machinery, they still try to abuse it anyway. The destructive behavior will become quite aggressive when the teenage years kick in if it is not corrected early.

Statistics

Bullying does occur in all kinds of forms. It is part of everyone’s life at one point or another. Believe it or not, lots of people admit on accidentally bullying others as well. The bad news is that bullying keeps gaining in intensity on one side with the incidence of the Internet, social networks and unsupervised uses among children. But on a positive note, it is seen as a more serious offense these days. There are all kinds of programs to tackle it, while authorities take it quite seriously in the attempt to eradicate it and its effects.

Cyberbullying

  • According to the Cyberbullying Research Center, 20.1% of teenagers reported that they were affected in one way or another by online rumors.
  • At the same time, more than 7% of school students had a hurtful or harassing website created about them in the attempt to bully them.
  • A recent survey targeting parents around Asia has revealed the fact that almost 80% of them had their children threatened or abused while playing video games over the Internet.

Bullying

  • According to StopBullying.Gov, just under 71% of young students said they have witnessed at least one act of bullying in their schools.
  • About 30% of them have admitted to bullying others during their school years – voluntarily or not.
  • Around 28% of middle and high school students in the USA have experienced at least one act of bullying.
  • Acts of bullying stop within the first 10 seconds in 57% of all situations if a bystander intervenes.
  • Around 44% of middle school students have experienced name calling, while 43% have experienced teasing. About 29% of them have faces hitting or kicking.

Body Shaming

  • Based on TeenVogue, 65% of women in the USA had experienced the first body shaming bullying act before they were 14.
  • Just over 74% of all women in the USA go to the beach or similar places less frequently after being body shamed due to emotional issues.
  • About 33% of girls and 25% of boys have reported being body shamed. These rates go up to around 60% for overweight youngsters.
  • Just under 65% of students questioned in a survey enrolled in weight loss programs after being body shamed by others.

LGBT Bullying 

  • According to MentalHealthAmerica.Net, gay, trans and bisexual youngsters who have been bullied are 100% more likely to experience substance abuse at some point in their lives.
  • The risk of self harm and abuse is 250% more likely among LGBT youth after being bullied regarding their sexual orientation.
  • Up to 50% of LGBT youth who have experienced bullying believe that they can find happiness if they move away from their current location, supporting the idea of starting a new life where nobody knows them.
  • Due to bullying episodes, LGBT youth are 400% more likely to try committing suicide than heterosexual youth.

Physical Bullying

  • According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, females are bullied more often than males – 23% versus 19%.
  • Physical bullying is more likely to affect males than females – 6% versus 4%.
  • When it comes to school bullying, the hallway is the most common place for such episodes – 42%. Classrooms see 34% of them, while 22% of them happen in cafeterias.
  • On a positive note, 43% of most bullied students notify a parent, a professor or another adult regarding the bullying incident. The number keeps growing due to various educational courses.

School Bullying

  • Up to 20% of students in grades 9 to 12 have been through one or more episodes of school bullying.
  • In the UK, 54% of all students questioned reported being bullied at least once in their lives – this means one out of two children.
  • 20% of children in the UK have been bullied within the past 12 months.
  • About 50% of all bullying reasons in schools around the UK is based on the victim’s physical appearance.
  • Over 40% of all children bullied reported their hobbies and interests being the primary reasons behind such acts.

Social Media Bullying

  • According to the i-SAFEfoundation, 50% of all teenagers has been bullied over social media at least once in their lives. The same percentage applies to those who have admitted doing it themselves.
  • More than 50% of teenagers who experience bullying are reluctant about telling their parents or other adults, so they attempt to keep the episode hidden.
  • About 34% of young teens have been threatened over social media messages and posts.
  • Less than 20% of all bullying incidents over social media networks are actually reported to law enforcement institutions or agencies.

Workplace Bullying

  • According to Forbes, which quoted a research study conducted by a professor at the University of Phoenix, 75% of all workers are affected by workplace bullying – including being a victim and a witness.
  • About 25% of all workers are bullied at their workplace at some point or another in their lives – that means one in four employees.
  • BrandonGaille.Comclaims that 54% of all workplace bullies have been doing it for five years or more, which shows how far it can go if it is not reported.
  • About 62% of workplace bullying implies sabotaging others’ work or reputation.

Teen Bullying

  • According to the Unchained Projectquoting the National Education Association & ABC News, 160,000 kids and teenagers in the USA choose to stay home from school on a daily basis due to the fear of bullying.
  • Teen bullying victims are up to nine times more likely to think about suicide after such an event occurs in front of others.
  • Over 50% of all suicides among teenagers are caused by at least one episode of bullying in the recent past. Most commonly, these victims have faced repetitive bullying.

Suicide Bullying

  • The Unchained Project quoting The American Association of Suicidology claims that suicide rates among children aged 10 to 14 have grown by 50% in the last 30 years and mostly because of bullying.

  • Wikipedia quoting a study in the UK agrees that girls 10 to 14 years old are more exposed to the idea of committing suicide due to repetitive bullying.
  • The NVEEE quoting the Yale School of Medicine agrees that a recent study from 13 countries shows a connection between bullying, bullies and suicide.

Demographic Bullying

  • According to the New York Post, girls are more likely to be bullied than boys during their teenage years – 24% compared to 20%.
  • White students are more likely to be bullied than black, Hispanic or Asian students – 24% compared to 20%, 19% and 9%.
  • When it comes to cyberbullying, girls are – again – more exposed than boys. Up to 9% of girls questioned have admitted being cyberbullied and only 5% of boys found themselves in this situation.

  • Psychology Today claims that boys are more likely to bully or insult someone over the Internet – 32% compared to 22%.
  • The same rule applies when trolling public figures and celebrities – 22% of boys and just 10% of girls.

Prevention of Bullying

When it comes to children, it is the parents’ responsibility to help their little ones understand bullying. Education is critical. Children must understand that bullying is not acceptable and must be reported right away.

Communication is essential, so parents must check in with their children often. They have to listen to their needs, meet their friends and understand their worries. They should be encouraged to get involved with activities and interests they like and boost confidence.

As for adults, their methods are easier because they must be able to take care of themselves and report any form of bullying straight away.

Responding to Bullying

Form Relationships

Relationships can help responding to bullying from multiple points of view. Most importantly, they are about to support. If someone gets bullied, being alone will not give them too many options. They can report the incident to local authorities, but many victims are scared to do it.

Having friends and family around will help them open up. They are also more receptive when it comes to advice and instructions from someone they trust and love. The necessity of forming relationships is even more obvious in children or vulnerable adults.

Go Online

The Internet is a valuable source of information. Not sure what to do if you got bullied? Find out the steps to deal with it and boost your confidence. Join forums and discussion boards, meet new people and learn from others’ previous experiences. It is not the end of the world, even if it feels like it.

Victims of bullying often feel down when they have no idea what to do, yet the Internet allows getting information and advice. Moreover, there are organizations that can help bullying victims, as well as law enforcement agencies that take online reports.

Evidence

If there is a way to gather evidence for a case or a report, do it. Whether you are the victim of bullying or you witness such an incident, get as much evidence as you can for further action.

Report 

It is imperative to report bullying as soon as it occurs. Talk to your close friends, parents or managers, depending on where the incident occurred. Faster is better.

Utilize Law Enforcement

There are multiple law enforcement agencies that can deal with bullying. If you are not sure what is available in the area, the police is the optimal solution.

Engage Parents

Parents represent the best choice for children and teenagers – even for adults. They can advise accordingly and even do things that the victim is afraid to do, such as reporting the incident.

Engage the Community

When bullying occurs in the area – such as a store, park or the street, engaging the community is one of the right ways to increase awareness and ensure others will keep an eye out for such incidents.

Etymology of Bullying

The origins of bullying are German and Dutch. Back then, people used to call someone they liked or loved a bully. During the 17th century, the word was associated with blustering men, only to get darker and darker. By the 18th century, its meaning was similar to today’s meaning – a tyrannical coward who can only win over weaker people by terror.

Frequently Asked Questions

Why do people bully?

Apart from jealousy and stress, people bully others because putting others down makes them feel better about their insecurities and weaknesses.

Is there a thesis statement about bullying?

While you can find thesis statements about bullying, you are more likely to discover research studies and statistics on this topic.

Are there any cyberbullying slogans?

Here are a few interesting cyberbullying slogans.

  • Be happy, bullies hate it.
  • Think before you type.
  • Buddies, not bullies.

Can you go to jail for cyberbullying?

Most bullying cases (including cyberbullying cases) do not result in prison time, yet there are many situations when bullies ended up serving – even without any actual physical contact. It is essential for the victims to report such cases with as much evidence as possible. The outcome varies from one situation to another and depends on multiple circumstances.

What is the difference between bullying and
cyberbullying?

Cyberbullying is a negative consequence of the evolution of technology, so it occurs in the online environment. Such incidents can occur anytime and anywhere – they might affect victims in the comfort of their homes. They can go viral too, making it even worse for the victim. On another note, there is way less remorse over the Internet.

Conclusion

Bottom line, it is more than a decade since bullying became a recognized phenomenon. While still wildly spread in multiple environments, there are serious efforts to tackle it down from all directions. Fortunately, there are more and more options to deal with it in an efficient manner.​​

Sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bullying

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_troll

https://www.stopbullying.gov/what-is-bullying/index.html

https://www.verywellfamily.com/characteristics-of-a-bully-2609264

https://www.nap.edu/read/23482/chapter/6https://www.nap.edu/read/23482/chapter/6

https://www.stopbullying.gov/at-risk/effects/index.html

https://www.psycom.net/effects-of-bullying

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0191886911005708

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_triad

http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=5550

http://ei.yale.edu/preventing-bullying-using-emotional-intelligence-training/

https://www.cbhs.com.au/health-well-being-blog/blog-article/2015/08/04/cyber-bullying-how-to-identify-it-and-how-you-can-help

https://www.stopbullying.gov/at-risk/groups/lgbt/index.html

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/026455059804500310?journalCode=prbb

https://www.stopbullying.gov/prevention/index.html

https://www.kidsmatter.edu.au/families/enewsletter/constructively-responding-bullying​